Comparing 3D Interaction Performance in Comfortable and Uncomfortable Regions

Marina Hofmann, Ronja Bürger, Ninja Frost, Julia Karremann, Jule Keller-Bacher, Stefanie Kraft, Gerd Bruder, Frank Steinicke
Proceedings of the GI Workshop on Virtual and Augmented Reality (GI VR/AR), page 3--14 - 2013
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Immersive virtual environments (IVEs) have the potential to afford natural interaction in the three-dimensional (3D) space around a user. While the available physical workspace can differ between IVEs, only a small region is located within arm's reach at any given moment. This interaction space is solely defined by the shape and posture of the user's body. Interaction performance in this space depends on a variety of ergonomics factors, the user's endurance, muscular strength, as well as fitness. In this paper we investigate differences in selection task performance when users interact with their hands in a comfortable or uncomfortable region around their body. In a pilot study we identified comfortable and uncomfortable interaction regions for users who are standing upright. We conducted a Fitts' Law experiment to evaluate selection performance in these different regions over a duration of about thirty minutes. Although, we could not find any significant differences in interaction performance between the two regions, we observed a trend that the extent of physical fitness of the users affects performance: Athletic users perform better than unathletic users. We discuss implications for natural interaction in IVEs.

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BibTex references

  author       = "Hofmann, Marina and Bürger, Ronja and Frost, Ninja and Karremann, Julia and Keller-Bacher, Jule and Kraft, Stefanie and Bruder, Gerd and Steinicke, Frank",
  title        = "Comparing 3D Interaction Performance in Comfortable and Uncomfortable Regions",
  booktitle    = "Proceedings of the GI Workshop on Virtual and Augmented Reality (GI VR/AR)",
  pages        = "3--14",
  year         = "2013",
  url          = ""

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