Redirecting Walking and Driving for Natural Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments

Gerd Bruder, Victoria Interrante, Lane Phillips, Frank Steinicke
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), Volume 18, Number 4, page 538--545 - 2012
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Walking is the most natural form of locomotion for humans, and real walking interfaces have demonstrated their benefits for several navigation tasks. With recently proposed redirection techniques it becomes possible to overcome space limitations as imposed by tracking sensors or laboratory setups, and, theoretically, it is now possible to walk through arbitrarily large virtual environments. However, walking as sole locomotion technique has drawbacks, in particular, for long distances, such that even in the real world we tend to support walking with passive or active transportation for longer-distance travel. In this article we show that concepts from the field of redirected walking can be applied to movements with transportation devices. We conducted psychophysical experiments to determine perceptual detection thresholds for redirected driving, and set these in relation to results from redirected walking. We show that redirected walking-and-driving approaches can easily be realized in immersive virtual reality laboratories, e.g., with electric wheelchairs, and show that such systems can combine advantages of real walking in confined spaces with benefits of using vehiclebased self-motion for longer-distance travel.

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BibTex references

  author       = "Bruder, Gerd and Interrante, Victoria and Phillips, Lane and Steinicke, Frank",
  title        = "Redirecting Walking and Driving for Natural Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments",
  journal      = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG)",
  number       = "4",
  volume       = "18",
  pages        = "538--545",
  year         = "2012",
  keywords     = "redirected-driving detection-thresholds",
  url          = ""

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